Advances in genomic selection accelerate the process of developing crops and livestock with desirable agronomic traits (e.g., increased yield volume, stress tolerance, disease resistance and sustainability). Genomic selection is based on genotype-phenotype association or mapping.
This method is based on the genetic principle that genetic markers or variants distributed across the genome can be used to capture the genetic diversity of a population and estimate the breeding values of individuals in that population. Genomic selection was first described theoretically in 2001, but it was not until the second decade of the 2000’s that this method began to be applied in an incipient way.
This has occurred thanks to the development of and, above all, the reduction in costs associated with next generation sequencing technology, which has allowed the sequencing of the complete genome of thousands of individuals of species of interest for agriculture and livestock.